Monthly Archives: March 2013

Recursion I

In social contexts, recursion includes the ability to take an entire situation into account and put it into a different perspective while remaining within the very same situation. This is important for evaluating different situations, allow for cultural comparisons which formulate preferences, and ultimately make selections allowing for adaption to changing contexts. In terms of modes of observation, we can refer to this as second-order observation, i.e. an observation of an observation.

In mathematic algorithms, recursion is often defined as feeding the output of a function back into it as a variable. In circuit design, this is considered feedback. There is a difference in comparison to what we can observe in social phenomena. In mathematical or technical recursion, the output value is generalized either in a data format or as a signal, in a way that allows for it to be accepted at the input stage. However, this also means that at this point, all information about the internal structure of the function which produced it is lost. Its informational value is no higher than any other input the function receives. Additional information based on the sequence of events produced and received would have to be derived in a separate part of the function.

In social phenomena, we can observe similar phenomena, where values are generalized to be used over and over again at the end and the beginning of social processes. Niklas Luhmann has described some such cases as symbolically generalized communication media, sometimes more vividly referred to as success media. They include money, power, and love, to name the three most famous examples. In these media, accumulation is generalized to the degree that money usually works as a means of payment regardless of its origin, and power over a certain situation can either be had or not, regardless of the source it references, for example god or a democratic election. Similarly, love is either there or not, but it is mostly useless to discuss the detailed reasons why love for a specific person exists.

However, social observation is also capable of processing more complex situations. In communication, it is possible to evaluate a specific operation with respect to its contexts. An example could be the sentence “normally I would not agree, but under the circumstances it has to be okay.” Such a statement is not possible if the situation is only observed and evaluated for one specific outcome. Rather, different outcomes in different contexts have to be taken into account and are compared to the actual constellation at hand. Going even further, the situation in which the communication takes place can also be observed in that manner, i.e. evaluated for its specific contexts. The situation is thereby fed back into itself, but in the mode of more complex observation, instead of generalization.